The World Factbook / Справочник по странам мира (Мировая книга фактов)

Poisk ◦ Search

Flag of Germany
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
 Transnational Issues
Home  Reference Maps  Appendixes  Print-Friendly Page

This page was last updated on 19 September, 2006

Map of Germany

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Germany Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation, Germany remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduc ed a common European exchange currency, the euro.
   Geography    Germany Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
51 00 N, 9 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 357,021 sq km
land: 349,223 sq km
water: 7,798 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,621 km
border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km
Definition Field Listing
2,389 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Definition Field Listing
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Definition Field Listing
lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 33.13%
permanent crops: 0.6%
other: 66.27% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
4,850 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
   People    Germany Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
82,422,299 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 14.1% (male 5,973,437/female 5,665,971)
15-64 years: 66.4% (male 27,889,936/female 26,874,858)
65 years and over: 19.4% (male 6,602,478/female 9,415,619) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 42.6 years
male: 41.3 years
female: 43.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.02% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.25 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.62 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.56 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 78.8 years
male: 75.81 years
female: 81.96 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.39 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
43,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 1,000 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: German(s)
adjective: German
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)
Definition Field Listing
Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
   Government    Germany Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form: Deutschland
former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federal republic
Definition Field Listing
name: Berlin
geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
13 states (Laender, singular - Land) and 3 free states* (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern*, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen*, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen*
Definition Field Listing
18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Definition Field Listing
23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 October 1990
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Horst KOEHLER (since 1 July 2004)
head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor
elections: president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention, including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 May 2004 (next to be held 23 May 2009); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 22 November 2005 (next to be held November 2009)
election results: Horst KOEHLER elected president; received 604 votes of the Federal Convention against 589 for Gesine SCHWAN; Angela MERKEL elected chancellor; vote by Federal Assembly 397 to 202 with 12 abstentions
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag (613 seats; elected by popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms) and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has three to six votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block)
elections: Federal Assembly - last held 18 September 2005 (next to be held September 2009); note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 35.2%, SPD 34.3%, FDP 9.8%, Left 8.7%, Greens 8.1%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 225, SPD 222, FDP 61, Left 54, Greens 51
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance '90/Greens [Claudia ROTH and Reinhard BUETIKOFER]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido WESTERWELLE, chairman]; Left Party (Linkspartei. was Party of Democratic Socialism) or PDS [Lothar BISKY]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Kurt BECK]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
business associations, employers' organizations; expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, Arctic Council (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Klaus SCHARIOTH
chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador William R. TIMKEN, Jr.
embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, 10117 Berlin; note - a new embassy will be built near the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin; ground was broken in October 2004 and completion is scheduled for 2008
mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 09265
telephone: [49] (030) 2385 174
FAX: [49] (030) 8305-1215
consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold
   Economy    Germany Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Germany's affluent and technologically powerful economy - the fifth largest in the world - has become one of the slowest growing economies in the euro zone. A quick turnaround is not in the offing in the foreseeable future. Growth in 2001-03 fell short of 1%, rising to 1.7% in 2004 before falling back to 0.9% in 2005. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a costly long-term process, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $70 billion. Germany's aging population, combined with high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. Structural rigidities in the labor market - including strict regulations on laying off workers and the setting of wages on a national basis - have made unemployment a chronic problem. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are setting the foundations that could allow Germany to meet the long-term challenges of European economic integration and globalization, particularly if labor market rigidities are further addressed. In the short run, however, the fall in government revenues and the rise in expenditures have raised the deficit above the EU's 3% debt limit.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.504 trillion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$2.73 trillion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.9% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$30,400 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 0.9%
industry: 29.6%
services: 69.5% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
43.32 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 33.4%
services: 63.8% (1999)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.7% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 25.1% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
28.3 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17.1% of GDP (2005 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.249 trillion
expenditures: $1.362 trillion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
67.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
Definition Field Listing
among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.9% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
558.1 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
510.4 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
54.1 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
45.4 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
158,700 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.677 million bbl/day (2003)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12,990 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.135 million bbl/day (2003)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
395.8 million bbl (1 January 2004)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.22 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
93.88 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.731 billion cu m (2003)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
85.02 billion cu m (2003)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
305.8 billion cu m (1 January 2004)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$115.5 billion (2005 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.016 trillion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
France 10.2%, US 8.8%, UK 7.9%, Italy 6.9%, Netherlands 6.1%, Belgium 5.6%, Austria 5.4%, Spain 5.1% (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$801 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
France 8.7%, Netherlands 8.5%, US 6.6%, China 6.4%, UK 6.3%, Italy 5.7%, Belgium 5%, Austria 4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$101.7 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.626 trillion (30 June 2005)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Germany Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
54.574 million (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
71.3 million (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part
domestic: Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries
international: country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2001)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,657,162 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
48,722,055 (2005)
   Transportation    Germany Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
554 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 332
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 54
1,524 to 2,437 m: 58
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 135 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 222
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 33
under 914 m: 185 (2006)
Definition Field Listing
32 (2006)
Definition Field Listing
condensate 325 km; gas 25,293 km; oil 3,540 km; refined products 3,827 km (2004)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 47,201 km
standard gauge: 46,948 km 1.435-m gauge (19,674 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 229 km 1.000-m gauge (16 km electrified); 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 231,581 km
paved: 231,581 km (including 12,200 km of expressways) (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,467 km
note: Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 396 ships (1000 GRT or over) 10,833,329 GRT/12,866,273 DWT
by type: barge carrier 1, cargo 72, chemical tanker 14, container 267, liquefied gas 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 25, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 4
foreign-owned: 3 (Finland 2, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 2,303 (Antigua and Barbuda 853, Australia 3, The Bahamas 12, Belgium 1, Belize 3, Bermuda 1, Brazil 7, Bulgaria 1, Burma 5, Cambodia 1, Canada 3, Cayman Islands 14, Cyprus 211, Ecuador 1, Faroe Islands 1, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 2, Georgia 1, Gibraltar 106, Guyana 1, Hong Kong 7, Ireland 3, Isle of Man 55, Jamaica 2, North Korea 1, Liberia 510, Luxembourg 8, Malaysia 2, Malta 59, Marshall Islands 157, Morocco 2, Netherlands 58, Netherlands Antilles 52, NZ 1, Norway 2, Panama 29, Philippines 2, Portugal 17, Russia 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11, Samoa 1, Singapore 7, Spain 11, Sri Lanka 8, Sweden 4, Tuvalu 2, UK 63) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Bremen, Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Duisburg, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Mainz, Rostock, Wilhemshaven
   Military    Germany Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Support Service, Central Medical Service
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (conscripts serve a nine-month tour of compulsory military service) (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 18,917,537
females age 18-49: 17,913,113 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 15,258,931
females age 18-49: 14,443,412 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 497,048
females age 18-49: 470,537 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$35.063 billion (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.5% (2003)
   Transnational Issues    Germany Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center

This page was last updated on 19 September, 2006

Bottom Banner

Rambler's Top100