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This page was last updated on 19 September, 2006


Map of Estonia



Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Estonia Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
   Geography    Estonia Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
59 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 45,226 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km
water: 2,015 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 681.6 km
border countries: Latvia 343 km, Russia 338.6 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
3,794 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 12.05%
permanent crops: 0.35%
other: 87.6% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
40 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
   People    Estonia Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,324,333 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 15.2% (male 103,367/female 97,587)
15-64 years: 67.6% (male 427,043/female 468,671)
65 years and over: 17.2% (male 75,347/female 152,318) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 39.3 years
male: 35.8 years
female: 42.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.64% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.04 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.25 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
total population: 0.84 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 7.73 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.91 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 72.04 years
male: 66.58 years
female: 77.83 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.4 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,800 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Estonian(s)
adjective: Estonian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Estonian 67.9%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Belarusian 1.3%, Finn 0.9%, other 2.2% (2000 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1% (2000 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2003 est.)
   Government    Estonia Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
conventional short form: Estonia
local long form: Eesti Vabariik
local short form: Eesti
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
name: Tallinn
geographic coordinates: 59 25 N, 24 45 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)
note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 is the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Russia; 20 August 1991 is the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted 28 June 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8 October 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrus ANSIP (since 12 April 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held 21 September 2001 (next to be held in the fall of 2006); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
election results: Arnold RUUTEL elected president on 21 September 2001 by a 367-member electoral assembly that convened following Parliament's failure in August to elect then-President Lennart MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting, RUUTEL received 186 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155; the remaining 26 ballots were either left blank or invalid
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 2 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party of Estonia 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Estonian Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People's Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People's Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Res Publica 26, Center Party 20, Reform Party 19, Estonian People's Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, Social Democrats (formerly People's Party Moodukad) 6, non-affiliated (Social Liberals and independents) 10
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN, chairman]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Estonian United Russian People's Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG, chairman]; Pro Patria Union (Isamaaliit) [Tonis LUKAS, chairman]; Res Publica [Taavi VESKIMAGI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People's Party Moodukad or Moderates) [Ivari PADAR, chairman]; Social Liberals (group of eight parliamentarians, former Center Party members) [Peeter KREITZBERG]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Juri LUIK
chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Aldona Zofia WOS
embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [372] 668-8100
FAX: [372] 668-8134
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
   Economy    Estonia Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Estonia, as a new member of the World Trade Organization and the European Union, has transitioned effectively to a modern market economy with strong ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and is greatly influenced by developments in Finland, Sweden, and Germany, three major trading partners. The current account deficit remains high; however, the state budget is essentially in balance, and public debt is low.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$22.29 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$12.19 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.6% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$16,700 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4%
industry: 29.4%
services: 66.6% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
670,000 (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 11%
industry: 20%
services: 69% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.9% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA% (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 29.8% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
37.2 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.1% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29.1% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $5.126 billion
expenditures: $5.017 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.8% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.7% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.017 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.024 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.562 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
200 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,100 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.41 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.27 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$1.375 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$7.439 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Finland 26.5%, Sweden 12.9%, Latvia 8.8%, Russia 6.5%, Germany 6.2%, Lithuania 4.8% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9.189 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Finland 19.8%, Germany 13.8%, Russia 9.4%, Sweden 8.8%, Lithuania 6.1%, Latvia 4.7% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.948 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$11.03 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$108 million (2000)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Estonian kroon (EEK)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
krooni per US dollar - 12.584 (2005), 12.596 (2004), 13.856 (2003), 16.612 (2002), 17.478 (2001), note - the krooni is pegged to the euro
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Estonia Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
444,000 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,255,700 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are available throughout most of the country
domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country
international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn (2001)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ee
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50,440 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
670,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Estonia Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (2006)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2006)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 859 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 958 km
broad gauge: 958 km 1.520 m/1.524-m gauge (2005)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 56,849 km
paved: 13,303 km (including 99 km of expressways)
unpaved: 45,546 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
500 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 35 ships (1000 GRT or over) 267,319 GRT/92,993 DWT
by type: cargo 10, passenger/cargo 23, petroleum tanker 2
foreign-owned: 4 (Denmark 1, Finland 1, Norway 2)
registered in other countries: 71 (Antigua and Barbuda 12, The Bahamas 1, Belize 5, Cambodia 2, Cyprus 3, Dominica 8, Georgia 1, Isle of Man 2, Malta 4, Netherlands Antilles 1, Norway 1, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 25, Slovakia 1, Vanuatu 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Kopli, Kuivastu, Muuga, Tallinn, Virtsu
   Military    Estonia Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Estonian Defense Forces: Land Force, Navy, Air Force, Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit, KL) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
compulsory military service for men between 19 and 28; conscription lasts 11 months for junior NCOs and reserve platoon leaders; reserve officers and designated specialists have a different conscript service obligation; Estonia has committed to retaining conscription for men up to 2010 and, unlike Latvia and Lithuania, has no plan to transition to a contract armed forces; 17 years of age for volunteers; reserve commitment up to the age of 60 (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 291,696
females age 18-49: 304,961 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 200,382 (in 2004, 51% of the young men called up for service were determined to be unfit; main obstacles to conscription were psychiatric and behavioral)
females age 18-49: 250,351 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 11,146
females age 18-49: 10,605 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$155 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2% (2002 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Estonia Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
in 2005, Russia refuses to sign the 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia when Estonia prepares a unilateral declaration referencing Soviet occupation and territorial losses; Russia demands better accommodation of Russian-speaking population in Estonia; Estonian citizen groups continue to press for realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia must implement the strict Schengen border rules
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern, as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds

This page was last updated on 19 September, 2006


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